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Lawrence E Gilbert

Department of Integrative Biology


Phone: 512-471-2825

Office Location
PAT 440

Postal Address
AUSTIN, TX 78712

Research Summary:
Dr. Gilbert's current research ranges from the analysis of coevolved traits of insects and plants to experimental population dynamics and developmental genetics of mimetic color patterns in Heliconius butterflies. By working across different levels of biology in the same tropical food web, he hopes to understand both the context and the mechanisms of evolution and coevolution. By carefully studying population-level events in the system, he hopes to understand rain forest diversity in terms of why low density species persist and coexist with congeners locally. Many of his graduate students have worked on different or overlapping systems at his main field site in Corcovado Park, Costa Rica; others have pursued related problems of species interaction in a variety of sites from Texas to Africa. He is also interested in applying findings of basic evolutionary ecology to conservation of diversity and better management to agroecosystems. More information - see also the Gilbert Lab web page.

Research Publications* 

see Fire Ant/Phorid publications in separate bibliography

*Includes selected publications by Gilbert, graduate students, and post-docs based on work done while associated with our UT Austin group.


Gilbert, L. E., and P. R. Raven, Eds. 1975. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. Austin, University of Texas Press.

Gilbert, L. E., and P. R. Raven, Eds. 1980. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. Austin, University of Texas Press. Revised Edition.


Gilbert, L.E. 1969. On the ecology of natural dispersal: Dione moneta poeyii in Texas. J. Lep. Soc. 23: 177-185. 

Gilbert, L. E. and P. R. Ehrlich 1970. The affinities of the Ithomiinae and the Satyrinae (Nymphalidae). J. Lep. Soc 24: 297-300.

Gilbert, L. 1971. Butterfly-plant coevolution: Has Passiflora adenopoda won the selectional race? Science172: 585-586.

Gilbert, L. E.1971. Distribution and abundance of resources as factors which determine population structure in butterflies. Stanford University.

Singer, M.C., P. R. Ehrlich, and L. E. Gilbert 1971. Butterfly feeding on lycopsid. Science172: 1341-1342.

Gilbert, L.E. 1972. Pollen feeding and the reproductive biology of Heliconius butterflies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 69: 1403-1407.

Ehrlich, P. R. and L. E. Gilbert 1973. Population structure and dynamics of the tropical butterfly Heliconius ethilla. Biotropica5: 69-82. 

Gilbert, L. E. and M. C. Singer 1973. Dispersal and gene flow in a butterfly species. Am. Nat. 107: 58-72. 

Orians, G., J. L. Apple, R. Billings, L. Fournier, L. Gilbert, B. McNab, J. Sarukhán, N. Smith, G. Stiles, and T. Yuill. 1974.

Tropical population ecology. in Fragile Ecosystems. Farnworth and Golley (eds.). Pp. 5-65. New York, Springer-Verlag.

Gilbert, L.E. and M.C. Singer 1975. Butterfly ecology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Systematics 6:365-397. 

Ehrlich, P. R., R. R. White, M. C. Singer, S. W. McKechnie, and L. E. Gilbert 1975. Checkerspot butterflies: A historical perspective. Science188: 221-228.

Gilbert, L.E. 1975. Ecological consequences of a coevolved mutualism between butterflies and plants in Coevolution of Animals and Plants. L. E. Gilbert and P. R. Raven (eds.). Pp. 210-240. Austin, University of Texas Press.

Benson, W. W., K. S. Brown Jr., and L. E. Gilbert 1976. Coevolution of plants and herbivores: Passionflower butterflies. Evolution29: 659-680.

Gilbert, L. E.1976. Postmating female odor in Heliconius butterflies: A male contributed antiaphrodisiac? Science198: 419-420. 

Gilbert, L.E.1976. Adult resources in butterflies: African lycaenid Megalopalpus feeds on larval nectary. Biotropica 8: 282-283. 

Dunlap-Pianka, H.L., C.L. Boggs and L. E. Gilbert 1977. Ovarian dynamics in heliconiine butterflies: Programmed senescence versus eternal youth. Science197: 487-490.

Gilbert, L.E. 1977. The role of insect-plant coevolution in the organization of ecosystems. Le Comportement des Insecte et Les Signaux Issus du Milieu Trophique, Tours, France, Colloque International C.N.R.S. 

Gilbert,L. E. 1978. Butterflies and passion vines. Discovery2: 4-7.

Gilbert, L. E. and J.T. Smiley. 1978. Determinants of local diversity in phytophagous insects. in Diversity of Insect Faunas. L. A. Mound and N. Waloff (eds.). Pp. London, Blackwell Scientific.

Singer, M. C. and L. E. Gilbert. 1978. Ecology of butterflies in the urbs and suburbs. in Perspectives in Urban Entomology. G. W. Frankie and C. S. Koehler (eds.). Pp. 1-11. New York,Academic Press.

Boggs, C. L. and L. E. Gilbert 1979. Male contribution to egg production in butterflies: Evidence for transfer of nutrients at mating. Science 206: 83-84. [pdf]

Gilbert, L. E.1979. Development of theory in the analysis of insect-plant interactions.in Analysis of Ecological Systems. D. Horn, R. Mitchell and G. Stairs (eds.). Pp. 117-154. Columbus, Ohio State Univ. Press.

Whittaker, R. H., J. H. Connell, and L. E. Gilbert 1979. Intra-community pattern in a mesquite grassland. Texas J. Ecol. 67: 935-952.

Gilbert,L. E.1980. Coevolution of animals and plants: a 1979 postscript. in Coevolution of Animals and Plants. L. E. Gilbert and P. H. Raven (eds.). Pp. 247-263. Austin,University of Texas Press.

Gilbert, L. E. 1980. Food web organization and the conservation of neotropical diversity. in Conservation Biology. M. Soule and B. Wilcox (eds.). Pp. 11-33. Sunderland, Sinauer. 

Boggs, C. L., J. T. Smiley, and L. E. Gilbert 1981. Patterns of pollen exploitation by Heliconius butterflies. Oecologia 48:284-289.

Waage, J., J. Smiley, and L. E. Gilbert 1981. The Passiflora problem in Hawaii: can heliconiine butterflies control the forest pest, P. mollissima, without damaging the crop, P. edulis? Entomophaga 26: 275-284.

Williams, K. and L. E. Gilbert 1981. Insects as agents of visual selection on plant vegetation morphology: egg mimics of Passiflora reduce egg-laying by Heliconius butterflies. Sci. 212: 467-469.

Gilbert, L. E. 1982. Oviposition by two Heliconius species: Comments on a paper by Dr. A. Young. New York Entomological Society 90: 115-116.

Gilbert, L. E. 1982. The coevolution of a butterfly and a vine. Sci. Am. 247: 110-121.

Waller, D. and L. E. Gilbert 1982. Roost recruitment and resource utilization: Observations on a Heliconius charitonia L. roost in Mexico (Nymphalidae). J. Lep. Soc. 36: 178-184. [pdf]

Gilbert, L. E. 1983. Anguria and Gurania (Rain-Forest Cucumber). in Costa Rican Natural History. D. H. Janzen (eds.). Pp. 190-191. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Gilbert, L. E. 1983. Coevolution and mimicry. in Coevolution. D. Futuyma and M. Slatkin (eds.). Pp. 263-281. Sunderland, Sinauer.

Gilbert, L. E. 1984. The biology of butterfly communities. in The Biology of Butterflies. R. Vane-Wright and P. Ackery (eds.). Pp. 41-54. New York, Academic Press.

Gilbert, L. E. 1985. Ecological factors which influence migratory behavior in two butterflies of the semi-arid shrublands of South Texas. in Migration: Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance. M. A. Rankin (eds.). Pp. 724-747. Port Aransas, University of Texas.

Templeton, A. R. and L. E. Gilbert. 1985. Population genetics and the coevolution of mutualism. in The Biology of Mutualism. D. H. Boucher (eds.). Pp. 128-144. London, Croom Helm.

Murawski, D. A. and L. E. Gilbert 1986. Pollen flow in Psiguria warscewiczii: A comparison of Heliconius butterflies and hummingbirds. Oecologia 68: 161-167. 

Boggs, C. L. and L. E. Gilbert 1987. Spatial and temporal distribution of Lantana mites phoretic on butterflies. Biotropica 19: 301-305. 

Condon, M. A. and L. E. Gilbert 1988. Sex expression of Gurania and Psiguria (Cucurbitaceae): Neotropical vines that change sex. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 875-884. 

Gilbert, L. E., H. S. Forrest, T. D. Schultz, and D. J. Harvey 1988. Correlations of ultrastructure and pigmentation suggest how genes control development of wing scales of Heliconius butterflies. J. Res. Lepidoptera 26: 141-160. 

Porter, S. D., B. V. Eimeren, and L. E. Gilbert 1988. Invasion of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Microgeography of competitive replacement. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81: 913-918.

Miyakado, M., J. Meinwald, and L. E. Gilbert 1989. (R) - (Z,E) - 9,11-octadecadien-13-olide: An intriguing lactone from Heliconius pachinus (Lepidoptera). Experientia 45: 1006-1008.

Billington, H. L., C. D. Thomas, and L. E. Gilbert 1990. Variation in stage-specific mortality patterns of a specialist herbivore on different host plant clones. Functional Ecology 4: 721-725.

Condon, M. A. and L. E. Gilbert. 1990. Reproductive biology and natural history of neotropical vines Gurania and Psiguria. in Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. D. Bates, R. W. Robinson and C. Jeffrey (eds.). Pp. 150-166. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Nijhout, H. F., G. A. Wray, and L. E. Gilbert 1990. An analysis of the phenotypic effects of certain color pattern genes in Heliconius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 40: 357-372.

Gilbert, L. E. 1991. Biodiversity of a Central American Heliconius community: Pattern, process, and problems. in Plant Animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in Tropical and Temperate Regions. P. W. Price, T. M. Lewinsohn, G. W. Fernandes and W. W. Benson. (eds.). Pp. 403-427. New York, Wiley. 

Lee, C. S., B. A. McCool, J. L. Moore, D. M. Hillis, and L. E. Gilbert 1992. Phylogenetic study of heliconiine butterflies based on morphology and restriction analysis of ribosomal RNA genes. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 106: 17-31.

Gilbert, L. E. 1993. An evolutionary food web and its relationship to tropical biodiversity. in Animal-Plant Interactions in Tropical Environments. W. Barthlott, C.M. Naumann, K. Schmide-Loske, and K.-L. Schuchmann (eds). Pp. 17-28. Bonn, Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig. 

Deinert, E.I., J.T. Longino, and L. E. Gilbert. 1994. Mate competition in butterflies. Nature 370:23-24.
Grodnitsky, D.L., R. Dudley, and L.E. Gilbert. 1994. Wing decoupling in hovering flight of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 5(2):85-86.

Orr, M.R., S.H. Seike, W.W. Benson, and L.E. Gilbert 1995. Flies suppress fire ants. Nature 373:292-293. 

Mallet, J. and L.E. Gilbert. 1995. Why are there so many mimicry rings? Correlations between habitat, behaviour, and mimicry in Heliconius butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 55:159-180. 

Huston, M. and L.E. Gilbert 1996. Consumer diversity and secondary production. in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes in Tropical Forests. G.H. Orians, R. Dirzo, and J.H. Cushman (eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 33-47.

Morrison, L.W., C.G.D. Holvorcem, and L.E. Gilbert 1997. Oviposition behavior and development of Pseudacteon flies (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomology 26:716-724.

Orr, M.R., S.H. Seike, and L.E. Gilbert. 1997. Foraging ecology and patterns of diversification in dipteran parasitoids of fire ants in south Brazil, genus Pseudacteon (Phoridae). Ecological Entomology. 22:305-314.

Gilbert, L.E. and L.W. Morrison. 1997. Patterns of host specificity in Pseudacteon parasitoid flies (Diptera, Phoridae) that attack Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Environmental Entomology. 26:1149-1154.

Morrison, L.W. and L.E. Gilbert. 1998. Parasitoid-host relationships when host size varies: the case of Pseudacteon flies and Solenopsis fire ants. Ecological Entomology 23:409-416. 

Morrison, L.W., S.D. Porter, and L.E. Gilbert. 1999. Sex ratio variation as a function of host size in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitoid flies. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 66:257-267.

Folgarait, P.J. and L.E. Gilbert. 1999. Phorid parasitoids affect foraging activity of Solenopsis richteri under different availability of food in Argentina. Ecological Entomology.24:163-173.

Morrison, L.W., E.A. Kawazoe, R. Guerra, and L.E. Gilbert. 1999. Phenology and dispersal in Pseudacteon flies (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 92:198-207.

Morrison, L.W. and L.E. Gilbert. 1999. Host specificity in two additional Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 82:404-409. 

Morrison, L.W., E.A. Kawazoe, R. Guerra, L.E. Gilbert. 2000. Ecological interactions of Pseudacteon parasitoids and Solenopsis ant hosts: environmental correlates of activity and effects on interspecific competition. Ecological Entomology 25:433-444.

Engler, J., K.C. Spencer, L.E. Gilbert. 2000 Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 406:144-145. 
Gilbert, L.E. and J.M. MacDougal. 2000. Passiflora microstipula, a new species of Passifloraceae from Southeast Mexico. Lundellia 3:1-5.

Consoli, F., Wuellner, C.T., Gilbert, L.E., and Vinson, S.B. 2001. Immature development of Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae), an endoparasitoid of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 94:97-109.

Folgarait, P.J., O.A. Bruzzone, and L.E. Gilbert. 2002. Development of Pseudacteon cultellatus (Diptera: Phoridae) on Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomol. 31:403-410.

Wuellner, C.T., C.G. Dall'Aglio-Holvorcem, W.W. Benson, and L.E. Gilbert. 2002. Phorid fly (Diptera: Phoridae) oviposition behavior and fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reaction to attack differ according to phorid species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 95:257-266.

Mehdiabadi, N.J. and L.E. Gilbert. 2002. Colony-level impacts of parasitoid flies on fire ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society (Lond.). 269:1695-1699. 

Gilbert, L.E. and R.J.W. Patrock. 2002. Phorid flies for the biological suppression of imported fire ants in Texas: Region specific challenges, recent advances and future prospects. Southwestern Entomologist. Suppl. No. 25:7-17.

Gilbert, L.E. 2003. Adaptive novelty through introgression in Heliconius wing patterns: Evidence for shared genetic tool box from synthetic hybrid zones. In: Boggs, C.L., Ehrlich, P.R., & Watt, W.B. eds. Butterflies as Model Systems. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Brown, B.V., P. Folgarait, and L.E. Gilbert. 2003. A new species of Pseudacteon attacking Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. Sociobiology 41: 685-688.

Folgarait, P. J., O. Bruzzone and L. E. Gilbert. 2003. Seasonal patterns of activity among species of parasitoid flies
(Pseudacteon: Phoridae) in Argentina explained by analysis of climatic variables. Biological Control 28: 368-378.
Smith, C.R. and L.E. Gilbert. 2003. Differential attraction of a parasitoid to dead host ants. Florida Entomologist 86:479-480. 

Mehdiabadi, N.J. and L.E. Gilbert. 2004a Phorid fly parasitoids of invasive fire ants indirectly improve the competitive ability of a native ant. Ecol. entomol. 29: 621-627. 

Mehdiabadi, N.J. and L.E. Gilbert. 2004b. Parasitoids and competitors influence colony-level responses in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta flies on fire ants. Naturwissenschaften 91:539-543.

Reed, R.D. and L.E. Gilbert. 2004. Wing venation and Distal-less expression in Heliconius butterfly wing pattern development. Dev Genes Evol 214: 628-634.

Folgarait, P. J., P. D'Adamo y L. Gilbert. 2004. "A grassland ant community in Argentina: the case of Solenopsis richteri and Camponotus punctulatus attaining high densities in their native ranges". Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 450-457.

Folgarait, P. J., O. Bruzzone, S. Porter, M. A. Pesquero, y L. Gilbert. 2005. Biogeography and macroecology of phorid flies that attack fire ants in southeastern Brazil and Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 32: 353-367.

Folgarait, P. J., Chirino, M. G., and Gilbert, L. 2005. Development of Pseudacteon obtusus (Diptera: Phoridae) on Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environmental Entomology 34:308-316.

Porter, S. D. and L. E. Gilbert. 2005. Assessing host specificity and field release potential of fire ant decapitating flies (Phoridae: Pseudacteon). Van Driesche et al eds. Assessing host ranges for parasitoids and predators used for classical biological control: A guide to best practice. FHTET 2004-03 USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, W.V. 

Patrock, R.J.W. and L.E. Gilbert. 2005. Ant midden as an aide in documenting a species inventory. Entomological News 116(3): 173-176. 

Porter, S.D. and L.E. Gilbert, 2005. Parasitoid Case History: An Evaluation of Methods Used to Assess Host Ranges of Fire Ant Decapitating Flies In Proceedings, 2nd International Symposium of Biological Control of Arthropods 12-16 September 2005, Davos, Switzerland (M. Hoddle, Ed.), pp.634-650. 

Sanchez-Pena,R., R.J.W. Patrock, and L.E. Gilbert. 2005. The red imported fire ant is now in Mexico: documentation of its wide distribution along the Texas-Mexico border. Entomological News 116:363-366.

Folgarait, P. J., R. J. W. Patrock, and L. E. Gilbert. 2006. Development of Pseudacteon nocens (Diptera : Phoridae) on Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri fire ants (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99:295-307.

Hansen, A. K., L. E. Gilbert, B. B. Simpson, S. R. Downie, A.C. Cervi and R. K. Jansen. 2006.Phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution in Passiflora. Systematic Botany 31 (1): 137-148.

Hansen, A.K., L.E. Escobar, L.E. Gilbert and R.K. Jansen.2006. Paternal, Maternal, and Biparental Inheritance of the Chloroplast Genome in Passiflora (Passifloraceae) : Implications for Phylogenetic Studies. American Journal of Botany accepted Kronforst, M.R. L.G.Young*, L.Blume*, and L.E. Gilbert. 2006 Multilocus analyses of admixture and introgression among hybridizing Heliconius butterflies. Evolution 60: 1254-1268 

Kronforst, M.R., L.G. Young*, D.D. Kapan, C. McNeely, R.J. O’Neill, and L. E. Gilbert. 2006. Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 6575-6580

Kronforst,M.R., D.D. Kapan, and L.E. Gilbert.2006. Parallel genetic architecture of parallel adaptive radiations in mimetic Heliconius butterflies. Genetics174:535-539. 

Estrada, C., R. J. W. Patrock, P. J. Folgarait, and L. E. Gilbert. 2006. Host specificity of four Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), parasitoids of fire ants in Argentina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 89:462-468.

Cardoso M.Z., L.E. Gilbert . 2007. A male gift to its partner? Cyanogenic glycosides in the spermatophore of longwing butterflies (Heliconius). Naturwissenschaften. 94:39-42.

Kronforst, M.R. P.J. Folgarait, R.J. Patrock, and L.E. Gilbert. 2007. Genetic differentiation between body size biotypes of the parasitoid fly Pseudacteon obtusus (Diptera: Phoridae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 43:1178-84.

Plowes, R.M.,J.g. Dunn, and L.E. Gilbert. 2007. The urban fire ant paradox: native fire ants persist in an urban refuge while invasive fire ants dominate natural habitats. Biol. Invasions 9:825-836. 

Valles SM, Strong CA, Oi DH, Porter SD, Pereira RM, Vander Meer RK, Hashimoto Y, Hooper-Bùi LM, Sánchez-Arroyo H, Davis T, Karpakakunjaram V, Vail KM, Fudd Graham LC, Briano JA, Calcaterra LA, Gilbert LE, Ward R, Ward K, Oliver JB, Taniguchi G, Thompson DC. 2007. Phenology, distribution, and host specificity of Solenopsis invicta virus-1. J Invertebr Pathol.96:18-27.

Engler-Chaoquat,H.S., and L.E. Gilbert. 2007. De Novo Synthesis vs. Sequestration: Negatively correlated metabolic traits and the evolution of host specialization in cyanogenic butterflies. J. Chemical Ecology.33: 25-42. 

Kronforst MR, L.G. Young, L.E. Gilbert. 2007. Reinforcement of mate preference among hybridizing Heliconius butterflies. J Evol Biol. 20:278-85. 

Kronforst MR, C. Salazar , M. Linares, L.E. Gilbert. 2007. No genomic mosaicism in a putative hybrid butterfly species. Proc Biol Sci. 274:1255-64. Folgarait PJ, Patrock RJ, Gilbert LE. 2007. Associations of fire ant phorids and microhabitats. Environ Entomol. 36: 731-742.

LeBrun,E.G., R.M. Plowes, and L.E. Gilbert (2007) Dynamic expansion in recently introduced populations of fire ant parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae). Biol. Invasion. Online: 10.1007/s10530-007-9177-y.

Schulz, S., S. Yilldizhan, , K. Stritzke, C. Estrada and L. E. Gilbert (2007) Macrolides from scent glands of the tropical butterflies Heliconius cydno and Heliconius pachinus. Organic& Biomolecular Chemistry 5: 3434-3441. 

Kronforst, M.R. amd L.E. Gilbert (2008). The population genetics of mimetic diversity. Proc. R. Soc. B. Doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1378 

Schulz, S., C. Estrada, S. Yilldizhan, M. Boppre, and L. E. Gilbert (2008) An Antiaphrodisiac in Heliconius melpomeneButterflies. J. Chemical Ecology 34:82-93. 

Gilbert, L. E., C. Barr, A. A. Calixto, J.L. Cook, B. M. Drees, E. G. LeBrun, R. J.W. Patrock, R. Plowes, S.D. Porter, and R.T. Puckett (XXX) Introducing phorid fly parasitoids of red imported fire ant workers from South America to Texas: Outcomes vary by region and by Pseudacteon species released. Southwestern Entomologist.

In Press

Folgarait, P.J., R.J.W. Patrock, and L.E. Gilbert. 200X. The influence of ambient conditions and space on the phenological patterns of a Solenopsis phorid guild in an arid environment. Biocontrol XXX

Feener Jr ,D. H., M. R. Orr, K. M. Wackford, J. M. Longo, W.W. Benson, L.E. Gilbert (2008) Geographic variation in resource dominance, discovery, and parasitoid-mediated competition in the Brazilian range of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) Ecology XXX


Boggs, C. L. 1979. Resource allocation and reproductive strategies in several heliconiine butterfly species. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Boinski, S. 1986. The ecology of squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.
Cardoso, Marcio. 1999. The evolutionary and ecological consequences of pollen feeding in Heliconius butterflies: Resource acquisition, chemical defense and mating. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Chai, P. 1987. Patterns of prey selection by an insectivorous bird on butterflies in a tropical rainforest. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Condon, M. A. 1984. Reproductive biology, demography, and natural history of neotropical vines Gurania and Psiguria (Guraniinae, Cucurbitaceae): A study of the adaptive significance of size related sex change. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Deinert, E.I. 1997. Sexual selection in Heliconius hewitsoni, a pupal mating butterfly. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

DeVries, P. 1987. Ecological aspects of ant association and hostplant use in a Riodinid butterfly. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Duckett, C. N. 1987. The natural history of an undescribed Neotropical flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), and its relationship to oviposition in the butterfly, Heliconius hewitsoni, and to other local alticines. The University of Texas at Austin. M.A. Thesis.

Engler, H. 1998. Chemical ecology of passionvine butterflies: sequestration of cyanogens and patterns of host-plant specialization. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Feener, D. H. J. 1978. Structure and organization in a litter-foraging ant community: roles of interference competition and parasitism. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Gastreich, K. 1996 Interactions between the ant predator Dipoena sp. and the Piper-Pheidole mutualism: Behavorial perspectives on community ecology. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Greig, N. 1991. Ecology of co-occurring species of neotropical Piper (Piperaceae): Distribution, reproductive biology, and seed predation. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Harvey, D. 1987. The higher classification of the Riodinidae (Lepidoptera). The University of Texas at Austin. Ph. D. Dissertation.

Jordan, C. T. 1981. Population biology and host plant ecology of caper-feeding pierid butterflies in northeastern Mexico. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

LeVering, K. 1999. Why frogs scream: An investigation of the function of distress calling in Leptodactylus pentadactylus. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Lewis, D. M. 1980. Population biology of a communal bird species, Plocepasser mahali. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Linares, M. 1989. Adaptive microevolution through hybridization and biotic destruction in the neotropics. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Longino, J. T. 1984. Shoots, parasitoids, and ants as forces in the population dynamics of Heliconius hewitsoni in Costa Rica. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Mallet, J. 1984. Population structure and evolution of Heliconius butterflies. University of Texas, Austin, TX. Ph. D. Dissertation.

Mitchell, P. L. 1980. Host plant utilization by leaf-footed bugs: an investigation of generalist feeding strategy. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Murawski, D. A. 1986. Pollination ecology of a Costa Rican population of Psiguria warscewiczii in relation to foraging behavior of Heliconius butterflies. The University of Texas at Austin, TX. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Oliviera, E. 1998. Migratory and foraging movements in diurnal neotropical Lepidoptera: Experimental studies on orientation and learning. The University of Texas at Austin, TX. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Parmesan, C. 1995. Ecological and behavioral aspects of the interaction between host-plants and the checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha. The University of Texas at Austin, TX. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Penz, C. 1996. Phylogenetic studies of Heliconiiti butterflies as a tool for understanding evolutionary patterns. The University of Texas at Austin, TX. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Phillips, P. 1989. The relationship of successional and primary tropical rain forests to color infrared photography. The University of Texas at Austin. M.A. Thesis.

Savignano, D. A. 1990. Field investigations of a facultative mutualism between Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov (Lycaenidae), the Karner blue butterfly, and attendant ants. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Smiley, J.T. 1978. The host plant ecology of Heliconius butterflies in northeastern Costa Rica. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Solis, M. A. 1982. A biogeographical comparison of the moths of Liquidambar forests. The University of Texas at Austin. M.A. Thesis.

Srygley, R. B. 1991. The associations of palatability with flight, morphology, and thermal biology of Neotropical butterflies. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation

Strassmann, J. E. 1979. Kin selection and the population biology of the social paper wasp (Polistes exclamans). The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Sword, G. 1998. Neonatal host specificity in a polyphagous grasshopper, Schistocerca lineata. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Thomas, C. D. 1988. Diet maintenance and evolution in Euphydryas editha populations. The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.
Weller, S. J. 1989. Phylogeny of the Nystaleini (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Notodontidae). The University of Texas at Austin. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Wolin, C. L. 1982. Models of mutualism: density effects in facultative systems. The University of Texas at Austin. M.A. Thesis.

Non-reviewed Articles

Gilbert, L.E. 1994. Mimicry and Evolution. Discovery 13:8-15. 

Gilbert, L.E. 1995. Heliconius: The Ultimate Rainforest Butterflies. American Butterflies 3:4-11.

Gilbert, L.E. 1996. Prospects of controlling fire ants with parasitoid flies: The perspective from research based at Brackenridge Field Laboratory. pp. 77-92 in Proceedings of a Second Conference on Quail Management. Will E. Cohen (ed.) Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

Plowes, R. M., and L. E. Gilbert. 2007. Advances and challenges in biocontrol efforts against fire ants in Texas. in Biocontrol News and Information.